Why do you need Harvard referencing?
Before we understand how to do Harvard referencing, it is imperative to know why you must use it in your academic writing. Referencing helps you in building confidence your existing knowledge and portrays that you have read and clearly understood the topic. Referencing also helps you in staying away from plagiarism and using other researchers’ observations authentically.
Harvard referencing is extensively used to create reference lists, that is, an exhaustive list of sources that you have used in creating your research paper. This part of your paper generally gives information about the author, publication date, the title of the source, etc.
Before you start writing a Harvard reference list, make sure you keep the following pointers in mind.
1. Reference list is generally written on a separate sheet at the end of your document.
2. The authors must be organized in alphabetical order.
3. In case there is no author, then your sources should be organized as per the alphabetical order of the title.
4. Your reference list should be double spaced, which means that there should be a full and blank line of space between each text line.
In-text Citation: Harvard Referencing Style
These references are mentioned within the main body of your assignment or research paper. It must be included following a paraphrase or a quote taken from the original piece of work. In-text references are shorter in length in comparison to full references, and they contain the surname of the editor or the author followed by the year of publication and the page number. For example, if you use a quote from the work of an author named Michael James, then it is mentioned as follows.
(James, 2017, p. 189)
When a particular source has two or three authors, then their surnames are mentioned in alphabetical order. For instance,
(Coyne, James, and Thomson, 2017, p. 189)
If the original piece of work has four or more authors, then, in this case, the surname of only the first author is mentioned followed by the phrase ‘et al.’
(James et al, 2017, p, 189)
How to cite different types of sources
1. Citing a Book
When you are citing a book in the Harvard format, then keep in mind that the title is italicized. Only the first letter of the first word is capitalized unless it is a proper noun. Here’s an example to learn.
James and Thomson, M. (2017) A guide to citation.3rd edition. London: London Publishing.
2. Citing an Edited Book
Edited books are a collection of chapters that are scripted by various authors. Their reference format is quite similar to the book referencing format except instead of the author name the editor name is followed by (eds.) to distinguish editors from authors. The basic format is as follows.
Editor surname(s), initial(s). (eds.) (Year Published). Title. Edition. Place of publication: publishers
3. Citing an E-Book
Students tend to make an extensive used of online documents and e-books while writing their research paper. While doing so, make sure you reference an e-book correctly by mentioning all the required information about its collection, its online location, and the date on which it was accessed. An e-book citation also requires explicit mention of the author’s name, the title, and the year of publishing. The generalized format is as follows.
Author surname(s), initial(s). (Year Published). Title. Edition. E-book format [e-book reader]. Name of the E-Book collection. (Accessed: day month year)
4. Citing a Journal
In Harvard format, when you make a citation to a journal, make sure that the title of the article is written within single quotation marks. This is followed by the title of the newspaper in italics. Keep in mind to capitalize the first letter of each word. The name of the paper is followed by the volume and the required page numbers.
5. Citing a Newspaper Article
Citing a newspaper article in Harvard format is quite similar to citing a journal article except instead of the volume, and the issue number, the date of publication and the edition of the journal is mentioned. A generalized format is as follows.
Author surname(s), initial(s). (Year) ‘Article Title’, Newspaper Title (edition), day month, page number(s).
6. Citing a Film
When you are citing a film in the Harvard format, make sure that you mention the directors’ name followed by the format of the movie you are making use of like film, DVD, etc. Here’s an example of a citation using the movie ‘Rear Window.’
Rear Window (1954) Directed by Alfred Hitchcock [Film]. Los Angeles: Paramount Pictures.
7. Citing a TV Program
When you are citing a television series in Harvard format, then you should make sure that the episode title is enclosed within quotation marks and the title of the show is in italics. It is followed by the series number and the episode number.
The above guide will prove to be of great help in making a successful research paper with effective citation.
You can also read our APA Referencing Guide to know more about how to cite sources.
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